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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

最佳喜剧类编剧:阿兹?安萨里(Aziz Ansari)和艾伦?杨(Alan Yang),《无为大师》,“父亲母亲” (Master of None, "Parents")

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“FKA细枝”(FKA twigs),《两星期》(Two Weeks),Young Turks
Jiang Yiyi at the China Tourism Academy suggests China adopt a long-term national plan to improve the country's image and investment in inbound tourism to attract more visitors.
内战发生在奥创事件之后。那时,政府决定超级英雄们必须在政府管理下行事,不能再单独行动。“美国队长”斯蒂夫·罗杰斯表示反对,但“钢铁侠”托尼·斯塔克却赞成政府的做法。两人之间的冲突因此形成。

清华-欧洲工商管理学院的EMBA项目始于2007年,并于2012年进入英国《金融时报》排行榜,首次入围就直接冲至第四名。此后两年,该项目先后排名第二和第三,并最终在今年拔得头筹。
adj. 傲慢的,自大的
时间:2010-03-31 编辑:vicki

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

2017年共有产权房供地超额完成 今年供地计划考虑职住平衡

Gitanjali Rao was selected from 10 finalists who had spent three months collaborating with scientists to develop their ideas.
德拉吉在12月投票表决的次日作出回击,称欧元区政策制定者在动用政策工具推动通胀达标方面“是没有限度的”。
结果发现,被要求画出单词的参与者能够更准确地记起这些单词。而且画本身的质量并不会对记忆效果有什么影响,帮助记忆的仅仅是“画画”这个动作。对于香蕉,画一个大概的轮廓和详细的画出每个细节,产生的作用是一样的。参与者们即使只是花上几秒来画画,也能在记忆结果上有显著提高。研究人员还计划进一步地引进更复杂的单词甚至观点表述来观察参与者记忆表述的准确度。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

特斯拉(Tesla) Model 3s的产量会超过25万辆吗?
10.被授予爵位的企鹅
愿你一切称心如意,快乐无比。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 此外,有关通知还强调对作弊的零容忍。
  • 宜华木业收购美乐乐股权 估值较两月前低19%
  • ● “肉桂卷会在人类屁股内爆炸”
  • 市场低迷房子难卖 房企自建团队卖房
  • 二手房中介开打价格战 行业将大洗牌
  • They also arrived 40 minutes late for the official welcome and were running late to an event in Vancouver, too.
    蕾哈娜在榜单上排名第二,获得亚军,《男人装》表示:在这12个月以来,她真是无处不在,但是我们依然没有对她审美疲劳。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 年前租年后住 贝壳租房“惠租计划”更省钱, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

家居企业频出标准 领衔规范还是自我炒作?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

泛夹江产区陶企开工率接近70% 全抛釉销量喜人

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • May you have the best New Year ever.
    Hunger Games star Jennifer Lawrence on Tuesday topped a Forbes magazine list of the world’s highest-paid actress for the second straight year, earning some $46 million, followed by Melissa McCarthy.
  • 9.The Bling Ring
    These artificial ears will be a huge benefit to those who suffer injuries or who have microtia, a condition that keeps the ears from ever developing.
    腾讯通过电子邮件表示,目前没有为微信寻找赢利模式的计划。作为一个多元化互联网企业,腾讯拥有650亿美元左右的市值,是中国最大的上市互联网公司。旗下游戏产品、虚拟产品和其他平台上的广告给它带来了强劲的收入流。
    vt. 超过,胜过,超出界限
    [ri'flekn]

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 信诚中证智能家居指数分级基金即将发行
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 地产商杀入智能家居硬件 供应链是硬伤

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

《生活真奇怪》
"We hope the mother will come to us and verify the facts. If it's true that the user is a 13-year-old who spent the money without consent, we can negotiate a refund," the Tencent employee said.
6.不是故事的结局不够好,而是我们对故事要求太多。
It was billed as the year in which female film-makers and women's issues would be in the spotlight. The festival opened with a film by a female director for the first time in 28 years, Isabella Rossellini chaired the Un Certain Regard jury and Salma Hayek convened a high-profile panel to discuss the role of women in cinema. There was plenty to talk about – but had anything really changed? The numbers seemed to speak for themselves: of the 19 films in competition, only two were directed by women. And then came 'Heelgate' – of which, more later… Faced with suggestions that the festival is sexist, artistic director Thierry Frémaux was having none of it. Cannes was being held to an unfairly high standard, he claimed, one not applied to other festivals like Venice or Berlin. His suggestion? Instead, people should “attack the Oscars”.
Interestingly, a survey found Beijing was thought to be the most congested city in China, among 31.8 percent of respondents, followed by Zhengzhou at 8.8 percent.
It is just a common sense that no one wants to see chaos at his doorstep.
Chinese industrial profits slumped by a record 8 per cent last month, as Beijing’s targeted stimulus efforts failed to arrest a slowdown in the key driver of China’s economy.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • “世界各地的政策制定者认识到美联储的决定将产生什么影响,为此忧心忡忡,这让我们担心,”百达资产管理公司(Pictet Asset Management)全球新兴债券部门主管Simon Lue-Fong表示。“人们在说美联储的决定已被反映到价格上,但既然没人知道究竟会发生什么,这怎么可能呢。”
  • 未来4个月顺德50%的家具企业可能消失?
  • 10. Am I worrying about the future? Worrying about something that hasn’t even happened yet causes stress and anxiety. Focus on the moment in front of you and realize that it is all that exists.
    China hopes that the Asia-Pacific region will be one that enjoys order and stability, a region that is able to work out issues through consensus-building consultation, properly manage differences through dialogue and has the wisdom to resolve differences.
  • 互联网因素逐渐渗透地板行业 企业挖掘商机需讲究方式
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Although the timing is purely a coincidence, it can’t hurt that Magento’s first product manager, Tim Schulz, just joined Bigcommerce as senior vice president of product management. Most recently a strategic partnership and business development executive for Google for services such as Shopping Express and Wallet, Schulz will be sharply focused on ensuring Bigcommerce offers an integrated experience that better straddles the e-commerce and physical retail worlds. “Consumers just want a seamless experience,” he said.
    Between 2015 and 2016, the US market grew by 20 per cent, while the Asian market increased by just 10 per cent. There are two ways to look at the relatively modest size of the Asian ETF market compared with both the US and Europe — which is twice as big as Asia, with $716bn in ETF assets — say analysts.
  • Warm greetings and best wishes for happiness and good luck in the coming year.衷心祝福来年快乐、幸运!
    Newly launched Eleven James is bringing collaborative consumption to men’s watches. With a membership program offering access to a curated collection of high-end watches, Eleven James is extending the membership model that has previously been associated with private jets, luxury cars and vacation homes. Beyond the watches, members are enrolled in a dedicated loyalty program which includes a concierge service, access to partner benefits and unique experiences like watch-themed events. Sounds a little bit like men’s watches meet a Net Jets experience? Founder Randy Brandoff has deep experience in luxury marketing, having previously served as the Senior Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer of Net Jets and the Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer of Marquis Jets. Combining his expertise with a watch industry that’s grown year over year and a business model that’s proven successful in other markets, it looks like Eleven James could be hitting the market at just the right time.
  • 饰演《哈利·波特》里赫敏一角的艾玛·沃特森在2015全球十大美女榜中居第五。这位英国演员、模特、社会活动积极分子在2015年“问男人”网站评选的“九十九位最杰出女性”中夺冠,并且在《时代》杂志全球最具影响力人物评选中列第26位。
    Foss 还指出别人的推荐信有时间标记。如果你一周之内有五个新的赞那样看起来会很可疑,这些赞不像是真心的,好像你在刷好评,让别人说你好。
  • ●"Florida man dies in meth-lab explosion after lighting farts on fire"
    I agreed with Craig and Neil immediately that Ellen is the ideal host for this year’s show. We’re looking forward to an entertaining, engaging and fun show.
    英国《金融时报》根据此前的官方数据计算得出,这意味着10月中国对外投资额为83亿美元,同比下滑26.5%。
  • 南韩的活动分子在星期二发誓,要在月底通过宣传气球跨越边境向北韩偷运荷里活讽刺片"刺杀金正恩",以作为对北韩不断威胁的反抗。
    Buyers looking for new construction will have more options next year, as the number of new condos hitting the market in Manhattan, Brooklyn and Long Island City, Queens, is expected to more than double to 8,366 from 3,444 in 2014, according to data provided by Corcoran Sunshine Marketing Group.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 发改委调研上海楼市听多说少 关注长效机制 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

天津人才新政背后的楼市

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

“新零售”时代来袭 家装企业如何扬帆远航?

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

三大绝招打造优质口碑 给涂企带来最直接的营销效果

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

35城库存创近5年新高 二线城市去化速度首超一线

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • They also arrived 40 minutes late for the official welcome and were running late to an event in Vancouver, too.
  • Traders heading for the exits: 'Unsustainable trends can survive much longer than most people anticipate, but they do end when their 'time is up, at the culmination of their time cycles.' They analyzed more than 20 cycles: 'Nearly unanimously point to tectonic shifts in the months and years ahead.'
  • 涂料行业巨变在即 涂料也不再只是涂料

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 公司的运营情况不好。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Likewise, if the 11 countries led by Japan left in the TPP manage to salvage a deal following the US exit that could provide some balance in the region.
    Batman vs Superman: Dawn of Justice is scheduled to hit theatres on March 23, 2016.
    坚决打好蓝天保卫战。
  • Captivating, funny and possessed of a surprise-filled zig-zag structure that makes it impossible to anticipate where it's headed, this is a deeply humane film that, like the best Hollywood classics, feels both entirely of its moment and timeless.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 为Kinect开发《迪斯尼乐园大冒险》(Disneyland Adventures)和《精英:危险》(Elite: Dangerous)的开发商在ScreamRide中,将主题乐园经营发挥到了极致。玩家可以在游戏中建立夸张的过山车、云霄飞车和其他游乐设施,并进行试运营。游戏有三种玩法:工程师可以建设复杂的飞车,测试物理和重力极限;“尖叫骑手”则乘坐这些飞车,直接体验这种惊险与刺激——这有时会直接导致游戏人物死亡;而拆除专家可以用任何必要手段拆掉整个游乐园。随着《过山车大亨》(Roller Coaster Tycoon)等电脑游戏移植到了智能手机上,这一款次世代的过山车游戏可以让玩家有着时尚的互动体验。建设、体验和拆除过山车总是很有趣的,而ScreamRide则提供了多种方式,让你与朋友们共享这种兴奋之情。
  • LED封装补贴或将取消 企业将如何应对?
  • One of the main strengths of the LBS programmes is the wide range of students from different countries. More than 90 per cent in its 2015 MBA cohort were from overseas, coming from about 60 different countries.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 国内首部建材节能环保标准修订工作已启动
  • Household substance abuse
  • 遇冷!南京下半年首场土拍冷清落幕 城南宅地仅1轮加价成交
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

市场节水产品种类繁多 国家建材节水标准落伍

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 河北区市场监管局:严打房地产市场 虚假违法广告
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • “月欠族”过度消费危害不容小觑
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

源于:prosper(v 成功;兴隆)

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

你可以在任何时候进行冥想,但你可以在学习之前的15分钟,上课前的15分钟,考试前的15分钟进行冥想,你就会自己身为学生的良好表现而感到惊讶了。
An American singer-songwriter, Taylor Swift comes at No. 7 amongst ten most beautiful women of 2015. She is known for narrative songs about her personal experiences. She has received many awards and honors, including seven Grammy Awards, 16 American Music Awards, eleven Country Music Association Awards, eight Academy of Country Music Awards, 34 Billboard Music Awards and one Brit Award. As a songwriter, she has been honored by the Nashville Songwriters Association and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. By the start of 2015, Swift had sold over 40 million albums, 130 million single downloads and was one of the top five music artists with the highest worldwide digital sales.
Plastic surgery has long been big business in the US, but now the trend is sweeping across Asia.
May the bright and festive glow of New Year candle warm the days all the year through. Hoping you will have a wonderful time enjoying New Year that is happy in every way.
“It is exceptionally unlikely that we would be witnessing a record year of warmth, during a record-warm decade, during a several decades-long period of warmth that appears to be unrivaled for more than a thousand years, were it not for the rising levels of planet-warming gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels,” Michael E. Mann, a climate scientist at the Pennsylvania State University, said in an email.
不会。华尔街策略师预测美国政府的10年期借贷成本将在未来一年攀升至3%以上,这话就像尴尬的办公室聚会一样是圣诞节那段时间的固定节目。鉴于美联储退出量化宽松和美国减税,今年的预测看起来更有可能实现。然而,压低通胀和长期债券收益率的长期重大因素依然存在,并且仍然被低估。2018年美联储将至少加息三次,但10年期收益率不会突破3%。
A BuzzFeed News analysis has identified the 50 fake news stories that attracted the most engagement on Facebook this year. Together they totaled 21.5 million likes, comments, and shares. Of these stories, 23 were about US politics, two were about women using their vaginas as murder weapons, and one was about a clown doll that actually was a person the whole time.
SplashData公司称,在娱乐网站上使用和邮箱及社交网站相同的密码尤其不安全。
1. Bottoms Up Beer System
[.dem?n'strein]

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

智能家居或成为中国家庭的最后一道保护屏障

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • This pseudo-comedic 1970s crime drama tells the story of two romantically involved con artists named Irving Rosenfeld and Sydney Prosser, who are caught by an FBI agent and forced to scam corrupt politicians. The two continue to manipulate the FBI agent, their political targets, and their own family members, ultimately cutting an immunity deal that allows them to escape the ordeal without any criminal charges.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 请尊重一下那些支持你的人以及节目主持人,能在访谈开始前把口香糖吐了吗?
  • 4套转租公租房已收回 北京建委停止中介网签资格
  • 时间:2009-10-26 编辑:vicki
  • 一大波公租房税收优惠来袭 更多保障政策在路上?
  • 美式快餐发源企业、《财富》美国500强公司麦当劳(McDonald's))上周四宣布,它将用200亿美元进行股票回购和派发股息,由此加入了过去18个月企业界的股票回购浪潮。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 《租房幸福感报告》:拥有独立卫生间的租房者最幸福?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Sure, it plays music, has a calendar, and even entertains the kids, but it could probably also get hacked — just like everything else.
  • 这个M3坟墓还包含有一座古坟,斜坡,密封的门,坟墓入口,屏风的墙,过道,墓室,以及偏殿,研究人员最近在《中国文化遗迹》杂志上写到。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

钢铁业低迷:亏损企业常年不倒

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